Patan Devi is one of the 51 Shakti peethas in India. It is believed that these Shakti peethas were formed from the body parts of Devi Sati which was slashed by Lord Vishnu`s Sudarshan Chakra after her death. Prajapati Daksha, one of the sons of Lord Brahma, abominated Lord Shiva who cut off the fifth head of his father Brahma for demonstrating his pride of considering himself as most overwhelming and dominating amongst the Hindu Trinity. Devi Sati, daughter grown up loving Lord Shiva and wished to marry him, the idea which Prajapati detested. But Devi Sati disobeyed him and married Lord Shiva. This even increased his anger over Lord Shiva. He intentionally avoided inviting Lord Shiva and Devi Sati for maha Yagna he was performing. Devi Sati being attached to her paternal home however left for Daksha Yagna disobeying Lord Shiva. Upon reaching there Daksha started insulting Lord Shiva. Devi Sati unable to bear the insult immolated herselfat the Yagna. On learning about the death of Devi Sati, Lord Shiva gets infuriated and renders Tandav. He enters battle field to seek revenge form Prajapati and kills him.Then Lord Shiva take the corpse of Devi Sati and roams all around the world. Lord Vishnu seeing Lord Shiva`s misery disposes Devi Sati`s body with Sudarshan Chakra. The body parts thus fell in different parts of the country are formed as Shakti Peethas.
Devi Patan also called as Maa Parameswari, is an ancient temple where it is said that the right thigh of Devi Sati had fallen here in two places in Maharajaganj and Chowk areas in old Patna and renowned as one of the Shakti Peethas and named as Badi Patan Devi and Choti Patan Devi. This goddess here is originally called Maa Sharvanand Kari Parameswari. History also tells that these Goddesses protected Putruka, the founder of Pataliputranow Patna. Near the tank of Badi Patan Devi Mandir, a strange stone image was found which was kept on the eastern side in the Badi Patan Mandir and is being worshipped regularly.
Badi Patan Devi temple in Patna faces north and is towards the river Ganga. The temple worships three deities of Mahakali, Mahalakshmi, and Mahasaraswati which are made of black stone. A 1.5`X15` Portico was built at the entrance. There is a room with 8X8 for all the goddesses Mahalakshmi of 6’’, Mahakali of 12’’, Mahasaraswati of 12’’ and Bhairav of 3’’. These idols are placed on respective thrones of 4 feet width and 7 feet high.
It is believed that Choti Patan Devi is the primary temple of the two, and over the period of time the popularity of Choti Patan Devi considerably reduced comparing to Badi Patan Devi. It is also mentioned by a historian that during the period of 18th and 19th century this very temple held a prominent place in the city. The present state of the temple is poor. This temple houses for the holy deities of Lord Ganesh, Lord Vishnu and Lord Surya out of which Lord Surya is an ancient one which is built during medieval age during 9th – 11th century. The idols now present were reinstalled by Man Singh during 16th – 17th century.
In both the temples the deities are bathed early in the morning and Aarthi was performed. There is a yearly mela is held during Devi Navratri`s. It is said that around 600 devotees come here during mela and offer their prayers to Devi Sati. The priest perform Puja on the name of the devotee and apply Tilak, a vermilion powder, on ones forehead and distribute Prasad, which was earlier offered to the Goddess. Havan on the name of goddess is performed during auspicious occasions like Navratri’s and Ram Navami. The temple is open from 6am-10pm every day. Large numbered people visit here on Tuesday which is considered as an auspicious day.
Badi Patan Devi is less than a kilometer away from Choti Patan Devi and can be reached by two different routes one being via Gandhi Maidan- Ashok Rajpath- Patna City main road which is a kilometer away from destination and other through Gulzarbagh railway station road which is a half km away from the temple. Choti Patan Devi can easily be reached by any private transport from Badi Patan Devi.